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XPM·新展聚焦 |《错综的视线:早期摄影在东亚(1850年代-1919年)》

2023/9/14 15:50:50 人评论 次浏览 分类:热点新闻

      2023年9月16日,谢子龙影像艺术馆隆重推出年度馆藏研究展——错综的视线:早期摄影在东亚(1850年代-1919年),由复旦大学新闻学院顾铮教授担任策展人。本次展览分为“西潮东渐:大变局中的东亚景象和图像”“凝视他者:来自西方的摄影观看”“交错的视线:东亚内部的自审与互视”及“特别版块”四个单元,以发生在1850年代至1919年的摄影实践为线索,旨在尝试以跨区域的视角重新审视和扩展早期摄影在东亚的发展及相关议题。
      展览以谢子龙影像艺术馆收藏的费利斯·比托等外国摄影师的早期东亚摄影作品为核心,通过与海内外20余家学术机构及多位藏家展开合作,将呈现包含近百件珍贵馆藏作品在内的共510余件作品,这也是谢子龙影像艺术馆自开馆以来,整体展品数量及馆藏品展出数量最多的展览。其中展出124件原作、384件数字输出品、3件动态影像,以及36组书籍、地图、画报、画册等相关文献,力图在更广阔的视域中多维度地探讨早期摄影在东亚的展开,呈现各种意图驱使下摄影所观看记录到的近代东亚的历史社会景象。

2023谢子龙影像艺术馆馆藏研究展
错综的视线:

早期摄影在东亚(1850年代-1919年)

主办单位:谢子龙影像艺术馆
策展人:顾铮
展览时间:2023年9月16日-2024年9月1日
展览地点:谢子龙影像艺术馆二楼4展厅

2023 Research Exhibition Based on Xie Zilong Photography Museum Collection
Interwoven Sights:Early Photography in East Asia (1850s-1919)

Organizer: Xie Zilong Photography Museum
Curator: Gu Zheng
Dates:16th September 2023 - 1st September 2024
Venue: Exhibition Hall 4, 2F, Xie Zilong Photography Museum, No.387, Xiaoxiang South Road, Yuelu District, Changsha, Hunan
Exhibition Supporter:  Hunan Museum
Education Programme Supporter: Conquer SASAXI
Supporter: PermaJet

前言 

      出现在本展览标题中的作为历史地理概念的东亚,包括中国、日本和朝鲜半岛。从1840年的中英鸦片战争到美国海军将领佩里的日本远征(1853-54),帝国主义炮舰外交所暴露出来的西方帝国主义对于东亚的征服野心、商贸欲望以及相应而生的知识兴趣,因了摄影术的诞生和发展变得日益浓厚、具体和可行。由西方引入东亚的摄影术,作为一种技术观看与存像的新方式,同时作为一种以照片为主要形式的新的知识生产和文化传播的手段,在深入观视东亚、建立帝国主义的东亚想象的过程中发挥了其应有的作用。但是,我们也可以看到,进入到了东亚的摄影观视技术,如何被本地区的人们自主地运用与记录保存其现代化建设的实践以及区域内人们如何相互观看的实践。确确实实,展现在本展览中的复杂交错的观看视线,其质地、质量都有不同程度的差异,也体现观看者各自的现实与历史意识和视觉念想。“错综的视线:早期摄影在东亚(1850年代-1919年)”展览,以谢子龙影像艺术馆收藏的费利斯·比托以及其他一些西方摄影师的东亚摄影作品为中心,结合包括来自国内外其它机构和个人收藏的摄影和视觉作品,尝试综合展示这一时期摄影在主要是观看和记录东亚各国的人文社会景观和发展进程中,在东亚以什么样的方式展开与发展的具体实践,努力争取多角度、多层次、多媒介地描绘早期东亚摄影的复杂性与丰富性,既展现来自不同国家、具有不同文化背景以及抱持不同目的的摄影者眼中的东亚历史文化和社会实践,也展现东亚早期摄影的自身状态,以此探索全球帝国主义时代里发生在东亚的摄影实践的作用、意义和价值。
      我们清醒地认识到,由于各种条件的限制,上述构想的实现面临巨大挑战,但如果能够激活我们对于思考和反思摄影自身在一个跨国扩展的过程中所可能扮演的角色、摄影跨国观看实践所内包的视觉政治和不平衡的力学关系,以及同时产生的可能至今不衰的,影响我们的世界认知的某种历史影响和作用,那么这个展览的实现,相信对于国内外视觉文化以及摄影研究的发展会有一定的促进意义。借此机会,衷心感谢慷慨惠借各自珍贵藏品的国内外各机构和个人。没有各方面的大力帮助和支持,这个展览的实现是不可想象的。
费利斯·比托《雍和宫》,1860,蛋白印相,原作藏于谢子龙影像艺术馆

序章
西潮东渐:大变局中的东亚景象和图像
      序章部分展出了在摄影术发明之前就已经存在(有些或者即将被摄影所取代)的各种以图像作为塑造人类现实认知的视觉再现样式,包括了水彩画、铜版画、年画、浮世绘、石印图像以及糅合西画手法的炭精人物肖像画等,意在提示一个在摄影进入东亚之前与之时已经存在的形态各异的视觉文化的语境。通过展示这些东亚地区的具有各自地域特色的绘画视觉媒介的表征实践,序章为接下来将要展开的以摄影实践为主的展览主题的呈现作一铺垫。展现在这里的这一时期的东亚视觉艺术,以与社会大众具有亲和力的“低艺术”样式为主,对彼时纷至沓来的西方现代文明的传入与影响做出了某种回应。在日本和中国沿海地区,西潮的“新奇”视觉信息的获取和传播成为大众的新需求,而视觉消费,也逐步成为了当时大众生活的内容之一。这同时促成了视觉消费受众市场的形成。这些“低艺术”样式的内容生产,既体现在反映西风东渐的主题方面,也在某种程度上反映了对西方绘画和摄影的表现方式的借鉴尝试。在序章展示的作品中,正在发生变化的城市景观、成为时尚的欧美生活方式及观念等,都在各种形态的作品中得到较为丰富多彩的呈现。通过展出反映中国城市现实中的现代西方要素的中国小校场年画、描绘明治维新和文明开化时的日本社会生活的浮世绘、集纳大量中外现代生活信息的《申江胜景图》和《点石斋画报》等石印图像和画报,以及吸揉西画手法的肖像与风景绘画等作品,可令观众一窥丰富多样的东亚视觉媒介在近代思潮、现实景象,以及知识观念的表征、塑造与传播上的作用,也为接下来即将遭遇的摄影这一全新“看法”作出了某种准备。
升斋一景《东京名所三十六戏撰 开运桥》,1872年,木刻版画,原作藏于谢子龙影像艺术馆
《豫园把戏图》,木刻版画,1880-1910年代,原作由张舒萌收藏
 《中国上海港概况》,版画,原作由邵毓挺收藏


詹姆斯·亨利·巴特《福州罗星塔(产茶区)》,1866-1870年,纸本水彩,原作由仝冰雪收藏


第一部分
凝视他者:来自西方的摄影观看
      该部分以谢子龙影像艺术馆收藏的费利斯·比托、威廉·桑德斯及方苏雅等人的作品为核心,结合西德尼·戴维·甘博的中国摄影、G?普拉特的中国日本相册及约翰·汤姆逊等人拍摄于中国、日本和朝鲜半岛的照片所组成。这些来自欧美各国的摄影师们的东亚凝视,或全域贯通,或局部抵达,所见不一,但各有千秋。他们的对于东亚地区观看,既体现了他们对于东亚传统、历史和现实的人文兴趣,也体现了以实力为后盾的帝国主义视觉欲望的某种扩张性,同时也包含着他们对于摄影这个观看手段的认识和态度。而作为视觉文献,这些照片中包括了发生在东亚的某些重要历史事件(如第二次鸦片战争等),同时也从多个方面呈现并保存了19世纪下半叶到20世纪早期的东亚地区形态各异的社会生活、风俗和文化景观。通过他们的观看与纪录,我们既可以感受到他们对于东亚这一东方异域的某种迷恋和想象,也必须清醒地意识到他们在对东亚这一对象进行视觉书写中所暴露出的局限。
(左)威廉·桑德斯《中国的小吃摊》,1866年,手工上色蛋白印相,原作藏于谢子龙影像艺术馆
(右)佚名《日本花道》,1897年,手工上色蛋白印相,原作由徐累、花营堂收藏
(左)西德尼·戴维·甘博《牛驮行李、打伞的人》,1917年,四川省都江堰市灌县,原作藏于杜克大学鲁宾斯坦图书馆
(右)普拉特(G. Prat)《普拉特中国和日本相册》,1877-1884年,原作藏于盖蒂研究所
方苏雅《云南厘金局局长夫人及孩子》,1899年,手工上色玻璃幻灯片,原作藏于谢子龙影像艺术馆

第二部分
交错的视线:东亚内部的自审与互视
      该部分试图通过东亚区域内各国相互间的观看(虽然有时同时具有帝国主义和殖民主义的性质)和各国各自的本土摄影的实践,给出有关早期东亚摄影的较为丰富和具体的呈现,也努力平衡第一部分中来自西方的摄影观看的单向性的不平衡状态。这个部分的真正意图,也许在于引发这样的思考:互为他者的东亚各国,在什么样的具体历史条件下,有可能通过摄影观看以达到相互了解的目的?
      自审部分,在中国方面,有现代画家丁悚的上海美专教学景象和他保存的上海五四运动新闻照片,以及中国摄影家拍摄的京张铁路工程摄影和拍摄者不明的上海海宁洋行蛋品加工厂照片。这些照片,既展示了中国人在工业现代化“硬件”建设方面的努力、艰辛和决心,也保存了致力于文化建设的“软件”方面的具体实践的证据。这同时证明了中国人通过摄影自主观看与记录自身现代化进程的努力。同时,我们也可以从有关五四运动的不同地点(上海和北京)的摄影图像的对比呈现,感知爱国主义和民族主义情绪的高涨。而在朝鲜半岛,由韩美博物馆提供的展品,向我们展示了韩国早期摄影的面目。
(左)黎芳《广州药房街》,1870年代,蛋白印相,原作藏于谢子龙影像艺术馆
(右)谭景棠《青龙桥车站西上下火车同时开行由南望景》,1905-1909年,原作藏于云志艺术馆
      在第一部分中作为被看者的日本,在走向帝国主义的发展阶段的过程中,逐渐具备了摄影地观看区域内他者的能力。在互视部分,包括了日本人类学家鸟居龙藏的有关中国和朝鲜的摄影及日本佛教学者青木文教的中国西藏摄影等。这样多重视线的交互观看,生产出有关东亚地区的新的相互认知和知识。这种基于摄影的认知和知识生产,在某些特定历史条件下潜在地具备了未来服务于帝国主义扩张目标的可能性。这些由东亚各国摄影家拍摄的照片,虽然局限各异,但确实在一定程度上展现了发生在东亚的,包括了人类学摄影、纪实摄影、商业摄影和新闻摄影在内的形态丰富的摄影实践的发展和逐步成熟,为我们了解当时东亚的整体状况提供了一定的视觉参考依凭。
(左)鸟居龙藏《湖南省桃源的农家》,1902年,原作藏于东京大学综合研究博物馆
(右)川村《传统婚礼》,1900年代早期,原作藏于韩美博物馆

特别版块
      本展设置的特别版块由“出洋留影”“口岸城市”及“相关文献”三部分组成,以期使展览主题得到更多面向的扩展和延伸。“出洋留影”主要由展览涵盖时间段里,因为各种原因跨出国门在海外留影的中国人肖像照片构成,包括了官员、革命家、留学生和劳工等各阶层人士的影像,试图从这个超越了地理意义的“东亚”的中国人肖像集合体里发现、了解关于中国人的心性的线索。“口岸城市”部分将展示该时期因为不平等条约而成为中外交流前沿地带的通商口岸城市的上海、福州、青岛及广州等地的城市旧影。“相关文献”部分,是与展览主题密切相关的包含视觉材料在内的图书文献,希望通过它们的展出,进一步拓宽观众的视野。
(左)佚名《从乌山拍摄的福州城俯视图》(刊载于法国《画刊》),1884年,原作由徐希景收藏
(右)佚名《美国宿舍台阶上的宋美龄》,1916年,原作藏于卫斯理学院档案库
部分展出文献

Introduction

    The exhibition focuses on East Asia as a concept of historical geography, which includes China, Japan, and the Korean Peninsula. From the Opium War between China and Britain in 1840 to the American naval officer Matthew Calbraith Perry’s expedition to Japan in 1853-54, the ambitions of conquest, desire for trade as well as corresponding knowledge and cultural interests Western imperialism held toward East Asia exposed by the gunboat diplomacy of Western imperialist, had become increasingly concrete and feasible by the invention and development of photography. As a new way of technical seeing and visualizing, a new form of knowledge production and cultural dissemination primarily through images, photography, brought by the Westerners to East Asia, helped to establish the imperialist imagination of East Asia by providing a detailed and tangible means of visual exploration. However, it can also be noticed how the photographic techniques in East Asia were autonomously employed by the local people to document and preserve their practices of modernization as well as their practices of seeing each other within the region. Indeed, the complex and interwoven sights presented in this exhibition vary in texture and quality, reflecting the viewers’ awareness of reality, history, and visual imagination. Interwoven Sights: Early Photography in East Asia (1850s-1919) aims to comprehensively showcase the complexity and richness of early photography in East Asia. It focuses on the photographic works of Felice Beato and other Western photographers in East Asia, which are collected by the Xie Zilong Photography Museum. This exhibition also includes photography and visual works from other institutions and collectors, both domestically and internationally. It explores how photography unfolded and developed in East Asia during this period, specifically in terms of viewing and documenting the humanistic and social landscapes and developmental processes of various countries in East Asia. It strives to depict the diversity of early East Asian photography from multiple perspectives, levels, and media. Furthermore, the exhibition also showcases the history, culture, and social practices of East Asia as seen through the eyes of photographers from various countries with different cultural backgrounds and purposes, as well as the unique characteristics of early East Asian photography itself. Through this exploration, it aims to examine the role, significance, and value of photographic practices that occurred in East Asia during the era of global imperialism.
    The implementation of the above ideas faces enormous challenges due to various limitations. However, if we can activate the thinking and reflection on the role that photography itself can play in a transnational expansion process, as well as the visual politics and imbalanced dynamics inherited in transnational viewing practices of photography, and the historical influence that continues to affect our cognition of the world, then we believe that the realization of this exhibition will promote the development of visual culture and photography research both domestically and internationally. On this occasion, I would like to sincerely express gratitude to the domestic and foreign institutions as well as collectors that generously loaned their precious collections. Without the strong help and support from all parties, the realization of this exhibition would be unimaginable.

Prelude
Eastward Spread of Western Trends: Landscapes and Images of East Asia in the Great Changes
    The prelude part presents various types of visual representation that existed before the invention of photography (some of which were later replaced by photography), which shaped the perception of reality through images. These include watercolor paintings, copperplate prints, New Year woodblock prints, ukiyo-e, lithographic images, and charcoal portraits that combine Western painting techniques. It intends to highlight the diverse visual culture that existed before and during the introduction of photography in East Asia. Through the presentation of visual media in the form of paintings that showcase the unique characteristics of the East Asian region, the prelude sets the stage for the upcoming exhibition, which will primarily focus on photographic practices. The visual arts of East Asia during this period exhibited in the prelude have a predominant emphasis on a “low art” style that is accessible to the general public. It serves as a response to the influx and influence of Western modern civilization during that time. In coastal regions of Japan and China, there was a growing demand for the acquisition and dissemination of visually appealing information about Western trends. This led to the emergence of visual consumption as a significant aspect of popular culture at the time. As a result, a market for visual consumption among the masses was formed. The production of these “low art” styles reflected both the influence of Western culture and the attempts to incorporate Western painting and photography techniques. In the prelude, various forms of artworks vividly present the evolving urban landscapes, the fashionable Western lifestyle, and ideas that have become popular. By exhibiting Chinese New Year woodblock prints that reflect modern Western elements in Chinese urban reality, ukiyo-e prints depicting Japanese social life during the Meiji Restoration and Westernization, lithographic images and magazines such as “Drawing of Beautiful Scenery in Shenjiang” and “Dian Shi Zhai Pictorial” that collect a large amount of modern life information from China and abroad, as well as portrait and landscape paintings that incorporate Western painting techniques, this part can offer viewers a glimpse of the diverse role of East Asian visual media in representing, shaping, and disseminating modern thoughts, real-life scenes, knowledge, and concepts. This also prepares them for the upcoming introduction of photography as a new “way of seeing.”

Part One
Gazing the Other: Sights from the West
    This part focuses on the works of photographers such as Felice Beato, William Saunders, and Auguste Francois, which are collected in the Xie Zilong Photography Museum, combined with Sidney David Gamble’s photography of China, G. Prat's photograph album of China and Japan, and photos taken by John Thomson and other western photographers in China, Japan, and the Korean Peninsula. The gazes toward East Asia from these photographers from various countries in Europe and America vary in terms of the comprehensiveness and specificity of their seeing, but each has its characteristics. Their viewing of East Asia not only reflects their humanistic interests in the traditions, history, and reality of this region but also embodies a certain expansionist nature of imperialist visual desires backed by power. At the same time, their understanding and attitude towards photography as a means of seeing are also included. As visual documentation, these photographs include certain important historical events that occurred in East Asia, such as the Second Opium War, and present and preserve diverse social life, customs, and cultural landscapes in East Asia from the late 19th century to the early 20th century. Through their viewing and documentation, we can feel their fascination and imagination towards this exotic Oriental land of East Asia, but should also be aware of the limitations exposed in their visual representation of East Asia as an object.

Part Two
Interwoven Sights: Introspection and Mutual Seeing
    This part attempts to provide a more comprehensive and specific presentation of early East Asian photography through the lens of mutual seeing among countries in the region and the practices of photography within each country, despite some imperialist and colonialist features of these sights. It can also be regarded as a balance to the one-sidedness of Western photographic seeing exhibited in Part One. The true intention of this part might be to provoke thoughts on the specific historical conditions under which East Asian countries, as mutual others, could potentially use photography as a means of achieving mutual understanding.  
    Regarding the introspection part, in China, there are modern painter Ding Song's teaching scenes at the Shanghai School of Fine Arts and the news photos of the May Fourth Movement he preserved, as well as photographs of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway project taken by Chinese photographers and the Egg Processing Factory of Shanghai Henningsen Produce Corporation taken by unknown photographers. These photos not only showcase the efforts, hardships, and determination of the Chinese people in the construction of industrial modernization “hardware,” but also serve as evidence of their specific practices in the “software” of cultural construction. It also demonstrates the Chinese people's efforts to independently observe and document their modernization process through photography. Furthermore, we can also gain an understanding of the rising patriotic and nationalist sentiments through the comparative analysis of photographic images from different locations (Shanghai and Beijing) related to the May Fourth Movement. In the Korean Peninsula, the exhibited works provided by Museum Hanmi showcase the early features of photography in Korea.
     Japan, as the object of seeing in Part One, gradually acquired the ability to view others photographically within this region as it moved towards imperialism. The part of mutual seeing includes photographs of China and Korea by Japanese anthropologist Torii Ryuzo and photographs of Tibet by Japanese Buddhist scholar Aoki Bunkyo. These multi-perspective interwoven sights produced new mutual understanding and knowledge about the East Asian region. This photography-based understanding and knowledge production potentially had the possibility of serving the imperialistic expansion goals under certain historical conditions. The photos captured by photographers from various East Asian countries, though limited in multiple scopes, still showcase the development and gradual maturity of diverse forms of photographic practices in East Asia, including anthropology photography, documentary photography, commercial photography, and news photography. They provided us with a visual reference to understand the overall situation in East Asia at that time.

Special Section
     The Special Section of this exhibition consists of three parts: “Photos of Chinese People Taken Abroad,” “Port Cities,” and “Related References.” The aim is to provide a more extensive exploration of the exhibition theme. “Photos of Chinese People Taken Abroad” primarily features portrait photographs of Chinese people who traveled overseas for various reasons during specific periods. This collection includes portraits of officials, revolutionaries, students, and workers, representing different social classes, and tries to discover and understand the essence of the Chinese people’s mindset within the portraits that transcend geographical boundaries. “Port Cities” showcases the historical images of Shanghai, Fuzhou, Qingdao, and Guangzhou as prominent port cities that served as frontiers for Chinese and foreign exchanges due to unequal treaties. The “Related References” consists of books and documents, including visual materials, which are closely related to the exhibition theme and will hopefully broaden the perspective of the viewers.

关于策展人
顾铮
复旦大学新闻学院教授,复旦大学信息与传播研究中心研究员,复旦大学视觉文化研究中心副主任。1998年毕业于日本大阪府立大学人类文化研究科比较文化研究专业,获学术博士学位。曾任第56届世界新闻摄影比赛终评评委。2017-2018年度哈佛燕京访问学者。2019年德国海德堡大学第九届中国艺术史海因茨·葛策杰出客座教授(9th Heinz G?tze Distinguished Visiting Professor of Chinese Art History)。2020、2021、2022集美·阿尔勒国际摄影季艺术总监。曾获得中国摄影金像奖(理论评论)(2001)及第一届沙飞摄影奖学术奖(2007)。著有多部专著,并在国内外策划多个当代摄影及艺术展览。
Curator
Gu Zheng
Professor at the School of Journalism of Fudan University, Researcher at the Center for Information and Communication Studies of Fudan University, and Deputy Director of the Research Center for Visual Culture of Fudan University. He graduated from the Department of Comparative Cultural Studies, Graduate School of Human Cultures, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka, Japan, with an academic doctorate in 1998. He was a judge of the final evaluation of the 56th World Press Photo Contest, 2017-2018 Harvard-Yenching Visiting Scholar, 2019 9th Heinz G?tze Distinguished Visiting Professor of Chinese Art History, University of Heidelberg, Germany, and Artistic Director of 2020, 2021, 2022 Jimei-Arles International Photo Festival. He was awarded the Golden Image Award for Chinese Photography (Theory and Criticism) (2001) and the Academic Award of the 1st Sha Fei Photography Award (2007). He is the author of several publications and has curated many contemporary photography and art exhibitions at home and abroad.

 特别鸣谢 
(排名不分先后)
广东美术馆
何香凝美术馆
湖南博物院
影上书房
云志艺术馆
中国国家博物馆
东京大学综合研究博物馆(日本)
杜克大学鲁宾斯坦图书馆(美国)
盖蒂研究所(美国)
公益财团法人东洋文库(日本)
韩美博物馆(韩国)
花营堂(日本)
康奈尔大学图书馆(美国)
卫斯理学院档案库(美国)
丁夏
龚伟强
邵毓挺
谭立为
汤黎健
仝冰雪
王少波
徐累
徐希景
张舒萌
邹德怀
张揣月
石本利
Acknowledgments
Listed in no particular order
Guangdong Museum of Art
He Xiangning Art Museum
Hunan Museum
National Museum of China
Yingshang Photography Book Archive
Yun Zhi Art Gallery 
The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University
The Getty Research Institute
The Oriental Library
Museum Hanmi
Kaeido LLC
Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library
Wellesley College Archives, Library and Technology Services, Wellesley College
Ding Xia
Gong Weiqiang
Shao Yuting
Tan Liwei
Tang Lijian
Tong Bingxue
Wang Shaobo
Xu Lei
Xu Xijing
Zhang Shumeng
Zou Dehuai
Zhang Chuaiyue
Shi Benli

本展开幕论坛“历史、图像与东亚”将于9月16日(周六)下午14:30-17:00于谢子龙影像艺术馆一楼多功能厅线上线下同步举行。

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